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Server 1. Step Sibling Coercion Download Server Language Quality Links. You May Also Like. Watch Movie Favorite. Kelly Vol. Baby Fat 4 Baby Fat 4. School Girls School Girls. Please help us to describe the issue so we can fix it asap. Video Wrong video Broken video Others. The use of a condom significantly reduces the likelihood of pregnancy and disease transmission , both to the victim and the rapist.
Rationales for condom use include: avoiding contracting infections or diseases particularly HIV , especially in cases of rape of sex workers or in gang rape to avoid contracting infections or diseases from fellow rapists ; eliminating evidence, making prosecution more difficult and giving a sense of invulnerability ; giving the appearance of consent in cases of acquaintance rape ; and thrill from planning and the use of the condom as an added prop.
Concern for the victim is generally not considered a factor. Those who have been raped have relatively more reproductive tract infections than those who have not been raped. Acquiring AIDS through rape puts people at risk of suffering psychological problems. Acquiring HIV through rape may lead to behaviors that create a risk of injecting drugs.
This leads to the rape of girls and women. Society's treatment of victims has the potential to exacerbate their trauma. Women who have been raped are sometimes deemed to have behaved improperly. Usually, these are cultures where there is a significant social divide between the freedoms and status afforded to men and women.
Finally, rape victims are blamed more when they are raped by an acquaintance or a date rather than by a stranger e. The underlying message of this research seems to be that when certain stereotypical elements of rape are in place, rape victims are prone to being blamed.
Commentators state: "individuals may endorse rape myths and at the same time recognize the negative effects of rape. These include the idea that power is reserved to men whereas women are meant for sex and objectified, that women want forced sex and to be pushed around,  and that male sexual impulses and behaviors are uncontrollable and must be satisfied. For females, victim-blaming correlates with fear. Many rape victims blame themselves.
Female jurors might look at the woman on the witness stand and believe she had done something to entice the defendant. Thus, if rape occurs, it is considered to be at least partly the woman's fault, and her virtue is called into question.
In many cultures, those who are raped have a high risk of suffering additional violence or threats of violence after the rape. This can be perpetrated by the rapist, friends, or relatives of the rapist. The intent can be to prevent the victim from reporting the rape.
Other reasons for threats against those assaulted is to punish them for reporting it, or of forcing them to withdraw the complaint. The relatives of the person who has been raped may wish to prevent "bringing shame" to the family and may also threaten them.
This is especially the case in cultures where female virginity is highly valued and considered mandatory before marriage; in extreme cases, rape victims are killed in honor killings. Victims are to be informed of this immediately by law enforcement or medical service providers. They are able to conduct a focused medical-legal exam. If such a trained clinician is not available, the emergency department has a sexual assault protocol that has been established for treatment and the collection of evidence.
Emphasis is placed on performing the examinations at a pace that is appropriate for the person, their family, their age, and their level of understanding. Many rapes do not result in serious physical injury. This general assessment will prioritize the treatment of injuries by the emergency room staff. Medical personnel involved are trained to assess and treat those assaulted or follow protocols established to ensure privacy and best treatment practices.
Informed consent is always required prior to treatment unless the person who was assaulted is unconscious, intoxicated or does not have the mental capacity to give consent. In more violent cases, the victim may need to have gunshot wounds or stab wounds treated. After the general assessment and treatment of serious injuries, further evaluation may include the use of additional diagnostic testing such as x-rays , CT or MRI image studies and blood work.
The presence of infection is determined by sampling of body fluids from the mouth, throat, vagina, perineum , and anus. Victims have the right to refuse any evidence collection. Victims advocates ensure the victims' wishes are respected by hospital staff. After the physical injuries are addressed and treatment has begun, then forensic examination proceeds along with the gathering of evidence that can be used to identify and document the injuries.
Photographs of the injuries may be requested by staff. If the patient or the caregivers typically parents agree, the medical team utilizes standardized sampling and testing usually referred to as a forensic evidence kit or " rape kit ". The patient is discouraged from bathing or showering to obtain samples from their hair.
Once the injuries of the patient have been treated and she or he is stabilized, the sample gathering will begin. During the medical exam, evidence of bodily secretions is assessed. Dried semen that is on clothing and skin can be detected with a fluorescent lamp.
These specimens are marked, placed in a paper bag,  and are marked for later analysis for the presence of seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Though technically, medical staff are not part of the legal system, only trained medical personnel can obtain evidence that is admissible during a trial. The procedures have been standardized. Evidence is collected, signed, and locked in a secure place to guarantee that legal evidence procedures are maintained.
This carefully monitored procedure of evidence collection and preservation is known as the chain of evidence. Maintaining the chain of evidence from the medical examination, testing, and tissue sampling from its origin of collection to court allows the results of the sampling to be admitted as evidence. Some physical effects of the rape are not immediately apparent. Follow up examinations also assess the patient for tension headaches , fatigue , sleep pattern disturbances, gastrointestinal irritability, chronic pelvic pain, menstrual pain or irregularity, pelvic inflammatory disease, sexual dysfunction, premenstrual distress, fibromyalgia, vaginal discharge, vaginal itching, burning during urination, and generalized vaginal pain.
An internal pelvic exam is not recommended for sexually immature or prepubescent girls due to the probability that internal injuries do not exist in this age group. However, an internal exam may be recommended if significant bloody discharge is observed. An oral exam is done if there have been injuries to the mouth, teeth, gums, or pharynx. Though the patient may have no complaints about genital pain signs of trauma can still be assessed. Before the complete bodily and genital exam, the patient is asked to undress, standing on a white sheet that collects any debris that may be in the clothing.
The clothing and sheet are properly bagged and labeled along with other samples that can be removed from the body or clothing of the patient. Samples of fibers , mud, hair, or leaves are gathered if present. Samples of fluids are collected to determine the presence of the perpetrator's saliva and semen that may be present in the patients mouth, vagina or rectum. Sometimes the victim has scratched the perpetrator in defense and fingernail scrapings can be collected.
Injuries to the genital areas can include swelling, lacerations, and bruising. If a foreign object was used during the assault, x-ray visualization will identify retained fragments. Internal injuries to the cervix and vagina can be visualized using colposcopy.
Using colposcopy has increased the detection of internal trauma from six percent to fifty-three percent. Genital injuries to children who have been raped or sexually assaulted differ in that the abuse may be on-going or may have happened in the past after the injuries heal. Scarring is one sign of the sexual abuse of children. Several studies have explored the association between skin color and genital injury among rape victims.
Many studies found a difference in rape-related injury based on race, with more injuries being reported for white females and males than for black females and males. This may be because the dark skin color of some victims obscures bruising. Examiners paying attention to victims with darker skin, especially the thighs, labia majora, posterior fourchette, and fossa navicularis, can help remedy this. The presence of a sexually contracted infection can not be confirmed after rape because it cannot be detected until 72 hours afterwards.
The person who was raped may already have a sexually transmitted infection and if diagnosed, it is treated. Chlamydial and gonococcal infections in women are of particular concern due to the possibility of ascending infection. Immunization against hepatitis B is often considered. Information regarding other treatment options is available from the CDC.
The transmission of HIV is frequently a major concern of the patient. Routine treatment for HIV after rape or sexual assault is controversial due to the low risk of infection after one sexual assault. Transmission of HIV after one exposure to penetrative anal sex is estimated to be 0. Transmission of HIV after one exposure to penetrative vaginal intercourse is 0. HIV can also be contracted through the oral route but this is considered rare.
Testing at the time of the initial exam does not typically have forensic value if patients are sexually active and have an STI since it could have been acquired before the assault. Rape shield laws protect the person who was raped and who has positive test results.
These laws prevent having such evidence used against someone who was raped. Someone who was raped may be concerned that a prior infection may suggest sexual promiscuity. There may, however, be situations in which testing has a legal purpose, as in cases where the threat of transmission or actual transmission of an STI was part of the crime. In nonsexually active patients, an initial, baseline negative test that is followed by a subsequent STI could be used as evidence, if the perpetrator also had an STI.
Treatment failure is possible due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogens. Psychiatric and emotional consequences can be apparent immediately after the rape and it may be necessary to treat these very early in the evaluation and treatment. These can be Eating disorders , anxiety, fear, intrusive thoughts, fear of crowds, avoidance, anger, depression, humiliation, post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD hyperarousal, sexual disorders including fear of engaging in sexual activity , mood disorders, suicidal ideation, borderline personality disorder, nightmares, fear of situations that remind the patient of the rape and fear of being alone,  agitation , numbness and emotional distance.
Professional counseling and ongoing treatment by trained health care providers are often sought by the victim. Treatment can be lengthy and challenging for both the counselor and the patient. Several treatment options exist and vary by accessibility, cost, or whether or not insurance coverage exists for the treatment.
Treatment also varies depending upon the expertise of the counselor—some have more experience and or have specialized in the treatment of sexual trauma and rape. To be the most effective, a treatment plan should be developed based upon the struggles of the patient and not necessarily based upon the traumatic experience. An effective treatment plan will consider the following: current stressors, coping skills, physical health, interpersonal conflicts, self-esteem, family issues, involvement of the guardian, and the presence of mental health symptoms.
The degree of success for emotional and psychiatric treatments is often dependent upon the terminology used in the treatment, i. Labels used like rape victim and rape survivor to describe the new identities of women who have been raped suggest that the event is the dominant and controlling influence on her life.
These may affect supportive personnel. The consequences of using these labels need to be assessed. A perpetrator found guilty by the court is often required to receive treatment. There are many options for treatment, some more successful than others. A counselor will typically evaluate disorders that are currently present in the offender.
Investigating the developmental background of the offender can help explain the origins of the abusive behavior that occurred in the first place. Emotional and psychological treatment has the purpose of identifying predictors of recidivism, or the potential that the offender will commit rape again. In some instances, neurological abnormalities have been identified in the perpetrators, and in some cases they have themselves experienced past trauma.
Adolescents and other children can be the perpetrators of rape, although this is uncommon. In this instance, appropriate counseling and evaluation are usually conducted. Short-term treatment with a benzodiazepine may help with anxiety although caution is recommended with the use of these medications as people can become addicted and develop withdrawal symptoms after regular use and antidepressants may be helpful for symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder , depression and panic attacks.
As sexual violence affects all parts of society, the response to sexual violence is comprehensive. The responses can be categorized as individual approaches, health care responses, community-based efforts, and actions to prevent other forms of sexual violence.
Sexual assault may be prevented by secondary school,  college,   and workplace education programs. Most rape is committed by someone the victim knows. The humanitarian news organization IRIN claims that an estimated ", rapes are committed annually in South Africa  once called 'the world's rape capital.
Most rape research and reports of rape are limited to male—female forms of rape. Research on male-on-male and female-on-male rape is rare. Fewer than one in ten male-male rapes are reported. As a group, males who have been raped by either gender often get little services and support, and legal systems are often ill-equipped to deal with this type of crime.
Instances in which the perpetrator is female may not be clear and can lead to dismissing women as sexual aggressors, which can obscure the dimensions of the problem. Research also suggests that men with sexually aggressive peers have a higher chance of reporting coercive or forced sexual intercourse outside gang circles than men without such sexually aggressive peers.
Risk factors vary among different ethnicities in the United States. About one third of African American adolescent females report encountering some form of sexual assault including rape. In , sexual violence, and rape in particular, was considered the most under-reported violent crime in Great Britain.
The legal requirements for reporting rape vary by jurisdiction—each US state may have different requirements. In Italy, a National Statistic Institute survey on sexual violence against women found that Judicial bias due to rape myths and preconceived notions about rape is a salient issue in rape conviction, but voir dire intervention may be used to curb such bias. A false accusation of rape is the reporting of a rape where no rape has occurred.
Eight percent of 2, sexual assault cases were classified as false reports by the police in one study. The researchers noted that many of these classifications were based on the personal judgments and biases of the police investigators and were made in violation of official criteria for establishing a false allegation.
The researchers concluded that "one cannot take all police designations at face value" and that "[t]here is an over-estimation of the scale of false allegations by both police officers and prosecutors". Using both quantitative and qualitative methods, the researchers examined cases and found The researchers noted that where the police found a case to be a false allegation but did not want to pursue charges against the accuser, they marked it as "no further police action" instead.
All of these complainants were then charged or threatened with charges for filing a false police report. In the United Kingdom, the Crown Prosecution Service CPS analyzed every rape complaint made over a month period and found that "the indication is that it is therefore extremely rare that a suspect deliberately makes a false allegation of rape or domestic violence purely out of malice.
The unfounded rate is higher for forcible rape than for any other Index crime. Other studies have suggested that the rate of false allegations in the United States may be higher. A nine-year study by Eugene J. He further states that Kanin's study has a significantly poor systematic methodology and had no independent definition of a false report.
Instead, Kanin classified reports that the police department classified as false also as false. A study by David Lisak, Lori Gardinier and other researchers published in the journal of Violence against Women found that out of cases reported in a ten-year period, 5. Virtually all societies have had a concept of the crime of rape. Although what constituted this crime has varied by historical period and culture, the definitions tended to focus around an act of forced vaginal intercourse perpetrated through physical violence or imminent threat of death or severe bodily injury, by a man, on a woman, or a girl, not his wife.
The actus reus of the crime, was, in most societies, the insertion of the penis into the vagina. Sexual penetration of a male by another male fell under the legal domain of sodomy. Rape laws existed to protect virginal daughters from rape. In these cases, a rape done to a woman was seen as an attack on the estate of her father because she was his property and a woman's virginity being taken before marriage lessened her value; if the woman was married, the rape was an attack on the husband because it violated his property.
Thus, marital rape was allowed. In many cultures forced sex on a prostitute, slave, war enemy, member of a racial minority , etc. From the classical antiquity of Greece and Rome into the Colonial period , rape along with arson, treason and murder was a capital offense. In ancient Greece and Rome, both male-on-female and male-on-male concepts of rape existed. Roman laws allowed three distinct charges for the crime: stuprum , unsanctioned sexual intercourse which, in the early times, also included adultery ; vis , a physical assault for purpose of lust; and iniuria , a general charge denoting any type of assault upon a person.
The aforementioned Lex Iulia specifically criminalized per vim stuprum , unsanctioned sexual intercourse by force. The former two were public criminal charges which could be brought whenever the victim was a woman or a child of either gender, but only if the victim was a freeborn Roman citizen ingenuus , and carried a potential sentence of death or exile. Iniuria was a civil charge that demanded monetary compensation, and had a wider application for example, it could have been brought in case of sexual assault on a slave by a person other than their owner.
Augustus Caesar enacted reforms for the crime of rape under the assault statute Lex Iulia de vi publica , which bears his family name, Iulia. It was under this statute rather than the adultery statute of Lex Iulia de adulteriis that Rome prosecuted this crime. In contrast to the modern understanding of the subject, Romans drew clear distinctions between "active" penetrative and "passive" receptive partners, and all these charges implied penetration by the assailant which necessarily ruled out the possibility of female-on-male or female-on-female rape.
It is not clear which if any of these charges applied to assaults upon an adult male, though such an assault upon a citizen was definitely seen as a grave insult within Roman culture, an adult male citizen could not possibly consent to the receptive role in sexual intercourse without a severe loss of status.
The law known as Lex Scantinia covered at least some forms of male-on-male stuprum , and Quintillian mentions a fine of 10, sesterces — about 10 years worth of a Roman legionnaire's pay — as a normal penalty for stuprum upon an ingenuus. However, its text is lost and its exact provisions are no longer known.
Emperor Justinian continued the use of the statute to prosecute rape during the sixth century in the Eastern Roman Empire. Confusion over the term led ecclesiastical commentators on the law to differentiate it into raptus seductionis elopement without parental consent and raptus violentiae ravishment. Both of these forms of raptus had a civil penalty and possible excommunication for the family and village receiving the abducted woman, although raptus violentiae also incurred punishments of mutilation or death.
In the United States, a husband could not be charged with raping his wife until From to , a shift from labeling rapists as criminals to believing them to be mentally ill "sexual psychopaths " began making its way into popular opinion. Men caught for committing rape were no longer sentenced to prison but admitted to mental health hospitals where they would be given medication for their illness. Transitions in women's roles in society were also shifting, causing alarm and blame towards rape victims.
Because women were becoming more involved in the public i. Giving up the gender roles of mother and wife was seen as defiant against traditional values while immersing themselves within society created the excuse that women would "not [be] entitled to protection under the traditional guidelines for male-female relationships". Until the 19th century, many jurisdictions required ejaculation for the act to constitute the offense of rape.
In many cultures, such acts were illegal, even if they were consensual and performed between married couples see sodomy laws. In England, for example, the Buggery Act , which remained in force until , provided for the death penalty for " buggery ". Many countries criminalized "non-traditional" forms of sexual activity well into the modern era: notably, in the US state of Idaho , sodomy between consensual partners was punishable by a term of five years to life in prison as late as , and this law was only ruled to be inapplicable to married couples in In the United States, before and during the American Civil War when chattel slavery was widespread, the law focused primarily on rape as it pertained to black men raping white women.
The penalty for such a crime in many jurisdictions was death or castration. The rape of a black woman, by any man, was considered legal. In , Judge Navanethem Pillay of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda said: "From time immemorial, rape has been regarded as spoils of war. Now it will be considered a war crime. We want to send out a strong message that rape is no longer a trophy of war. It stated, "Rape of a detainee by an official of the State must be considered to be an especially grave and abhorrent form of ill-treatment given the ease with which the offender can exploit the vulnerability and weakened resistance of his victim.
It stated, "Indeed, rapists often employ subtle coercion or bullying when this is sufficient to overcome their victims. In most cases of rape against children, violence is not necessary to obtain submission. Courts are also recognizing that some women become frozen with fear at the onset of a sexual attack and thus cannot resist. Rape, in the course of war, dates back to antiquity, ancient enough to have been mentioned in the Bible.
The Mongols , who established the Mongol Empire across much of Eurasia , caused much destruction during their invasions. The Mongols were said to have raped the surviving soldiers at the command of their leader. Ogodei Khan was also said to have ordered mass rapes of the Oirat. The systematic rape of as many as 80, women by the Japanese soldiers during the six weeks of the Nanking Massacre is an example of such atrocities.
See Marocchinate. Rapes were committed by Wehrmacht forces on Jewish women and girls during the Invasion of Poland in September ;  they were also committed against Polish, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Russian women, and girls during mass executions which were primarily carried out by the Selbstschutz units, with the assistance of Wehrmacht soldiers who were stationed in territory that was under the administration of the German military; the rapes were committed against female captives before they were shot.
Rapes were also committed by German forces stationed on the Eastern Front , where they were largely unpunished as opposed to rapes committed in Western Europe   Wehrmacht also established a system of military brothels, in which young women and girls from occupied territories were forced into prostitution under harsh conditions. Rapes happened in territories occupied by the Red Army. A female Soviet war correspondent described what she had witnessed: "The Russian soldiers were raping every German female from eight to eighty.
It was an army of rapists. Included in the latter figure are about 15, Jews, largely victims of executions by Hungarian Arrow Cross Party militia. When the Soviets finally claimed victory, they initiated an orgy of violence, including the wholesale theft of anything they could lay their hands on, random executions and mass rape.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Type of sexual assault usually involving sexual intercourse without consent. This article is about a form of human sexual assault. For rape among non-human animals, see Sexual coercion among animals. For other uses, see Rape disambiguation. Rape is not a major problem in this society.
Rape is a problem in this society. Rape is a significant problem in this society. Rape is a major problem in this society. Rape is endemic in this society. No data. Main articles: Types of rape and Laws regarding rape. See also: Rape by gender. See also: Bodily integrity , Consent , Sexual consent , and Freedom of choice. Further information: Causes of sexual violence. Main articles: Victim blaming and Post-assault treatment of sexual assault victims. Main article: Rape investigation. Main article: Initiatives to prevent sexual violence.
Main article: Rape statistics. See also: Estimates of sexual violence. Main article: False accusation of rape. Main article: History of rape. See also: Wartime sexual violence. Rapes—affecting all age groups from ten to seventy are so common that very few women in Hungary have been spared. Krisztian Ungvary The Siege of Budapest World Health Organization. Retrieved 5 December ISBN United Nations. Retrieved Part VII. No escape: male rape in U.
Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 7 June Journal of Interpersonal Violence. ISSN PMID S2CID Archived from the original on BBC News. A most detestable crime : new philosophical essays on rape. New York: Oxford University Press.
Encyclopedia of rape 1st ed. Westport, Conn. Violence Against Women. Dept of Justice, January 6, ". Archived from the original on 13 March Retrieved 30 October Retrieved 6 June Emergency medicine secrets. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. Gender Power and Communication in Human Relationships. Retrieved April 30, Retrieved August 24, Retrieved December 12, Equality Now. Textbook of basic nursing.
Sexuality today. Journal of Law and Criminology. Cardozo Law Review. Retrieved March 20, Barry September Journal of Applied Social Psychology. The Hindu. ISSN X. Philippine Law. Mens rea. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 3 February A natural history of rape biological bases of sexual coercion.
February Sexual Assault Report. Retrieved 10 June Personality and Individual Differences. Violence and Victims.
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